Good nutrition in childhood is the basis for the establishment and preservation of health in the future. Starting from birth, eating habits and addictions are laid, the correct attitude to food is formed as a source of energy and building material for organs and systems. The task of parents is to organize a complete diet that covers the costs of a growing organism, which allows it to grow and develop, eliminating harmful and toxic substances from the children’s menu.
What should not be in the diet of a child
In families where the diet is diverse and includes all the necessary substances, the problem rarely arises that the child eats poorly or does not like something. Therefore, it is important to set the right example for children, if there are deficiencies in nutrition, eliminate them together. Parents themselves must know and bring information to the children about the dangers of fast food, “stall” food, an excess of sweets.
Restaurants and fast food eateries have a wide and varied menu, often including dishes for children. A significant drawback of such places is the dubious quality of the products. If in network fast foods they monitor a positive reputation, then in tents and eateries the quality of raw materials and hygiene standards leave much to be desired. In addition, the dishes in them are unbalanced in composition and high in calories, and the drinks are offered cold, which negatively affects the digestion processes. Parents should not buy or allow children to take food on the street or in dubious institutions.
Larkovskaya food, chips, crackers, snacks, salted nuts, soda are harmful to people of any age. The composition of these products includes artificial flavors, dyes, preservatives, flavor enhancers that cause irreparable harm to the digestive tract mucosa, and when absorbed into the blood, affect other organs and systems. Excess salt negatively affects the cardiovascular system, causes thirst, which is often quenched by sweet soda. This drink contains a large amount of sugar, an excess of which leads to diabetes and obesity.
An excess of simple sugars leads to a violation of carbohydrate metabolism. The particles of sweets that get stuck in the teeth are a breeding ground for cariogenic microbes that destroy tooth tissue. Confectionery products are dangerous not only in high calorie content, but also as a source of food poisoning, especially when milk and raw eggs are used in their production.
What should be included in the diet of preschoolers
A child of preschool and primary school age spends a lot of energy. Therefore, the daily diet should cover all costs, as well as be balanced in proteins, trace elements and vitamins for harmonious development. Energy needs should be covered by cereals, bread, sweet fruits, and fiber-rich vegetables. Animal protein, which is full in amino acid composition, is necessarily included in baby food . In addition, meat is a major supplier of iron. Fats should prevail in the form of vegetable oils, and the proportion of animal fats is covered by the introduction of butter and milk into the diet.
Children in this age period should eat 4-5 times a day, in small portions, at regular intervals (3-4 hours). The approximate daily diet of a child consists of the following components:
- breakfast – a dish of cottage cheese, meat, eggs or cereals, milk or a coffee drink (from chicory, barley), weak tea with milk, fresh fruits;
- lunch – yogurt without additives, sweet fruit;
- lunch – the first hot dish in the form of soup on a vegetable or secondary weak meat or fish broth, the second of meat, fish and vegetable side dish, less often pasta, vegetable salad, juice, dried fruit compote;
- afternoon snack – cottage cheese or a dish of eggs (casserole, scrambled eggs), kefir, milk or jelly, cookies or other sweets in small quantities, fresh fruits;
- dinner – a dish of milk, vegetables or cottage cheese, a sour-milk drink or herbal tea.
To preserve vitamins, it is preferable to eat fresh vegetables and fruits, cooking steamed. Any dish of unpasteurized milk, cottage cheese, eggs, meat and fish should be thermally processed. Once a week, a liver or other offal is introduced into the diet as a substitute for meat. Children should not eat semi-finished products, dumplings, sausages, it is not recommended to use ketchup, mayonnaise, spicy sauce in the children’s menu. The daily amount of fluid consumed is at least 1-1.5 liters of pure water.
In the teenage period, good nutrition is necessary because of the high loads on the body in connection with hormonal changes, active growth, weight gain. During this period, chronic diseases, in particular, diseases of the digestive system, are often manifested or exacerbated. Therefore, it is imperative that the child receives a balanced diet, taking into account the existing pathology.
Teenagers attend various sports sections, study in circles, in preparatory courses, so their energy and protein requirements are increased, this must be taken into account when drawing up the daily menu. Inactive children should restrict easily digestible carbohydrates. Athletes should drink enough, and after training (after 40-50 minutes) receive complete proteins in the form of meat, cottage cheese, egg dishes. Teenage girls who start menstruating need to consume more foods that contain iron.
We teach children to eat right
In childhood, parents show an example of food culture, table behavior, simple table etiquette skills. From the age of 5, you can teach your child to use a sharp knife with a fork in his left hand. It is advisable to establish a certain diet when food is taken at the same time during the day, this contributes to the timely development of digestive juices and better absorption of nutrients.
It is important to explain to the child that you cannot laugh and indulge at the table. You need to teach your baby to use a napkin, eat it carefully from a plate. Watching cartoons and reading while eating is highly discouraged. In this case, the nervous system is distracted by other stimuli and does not respond to impulses from the receptors of the digestive system. As a result, this leads to overeating, an increased feeling of hunger, which is a predisposing factor to the development of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and obesity.
Children easily learn from examples of parents. If the family decided to eat right and get together at lunch or dinner, then the child, watching adults, will easily learn the basic rules of behavior at the table. And in the future he will have fewer problems associated with malnutrition.