Renal failure occurs against the background of all kinds of renal diseases, for example, with pyelonephritis, amyloidosis, nephroptosis and others. In the process of renal failure, the body accumulates protein metabolism products. The blood is saturated with residual nitrogen. The exchange of water and salts is upset, the acid and basic balance is lost. In severe renal failure, the body begins to poison itself.
Diet for renal failure consists of:
– limiting protein intake to a maximum of 70 grams per day, focusing on the degree of renal failure;
– compensation for the deficient energy value of the daily diet with lipids and carbohydrates;
– normalization of sodium chloride and water intake into the body, taking into account possible edema, blood pressure and kidney function.
In other words, the kidney failure diet is determined by its degree. For an initial degree, you can apply a diet that consists of a daily intake of seventy grams of protein, of which approximately 30% are animal proteins.
In case of renal failure, it is recommended to consume about one and a half liters of water per day, in other words, to limit yourself a little in drinking. The daily amount of water should not be higher than the amount of urine that came out over the past day, with about half a liter of water added to this amount. With renal failure, it is required to regularly carry out fasting days to reduce nitrogenous deposits in the blood. For fasting days, diets on rice and compote, on apples and sugar, on potatoes are recommended.
In addition, it is possible to vary the structure of the diet, taking into account the list of permitted products.
The diet for kidney failure should include bread without protein, salt and starch, pasta without protein, dishes from berries and fresh fruits with swollen starch. That is, it is better to make mashed potatoes, jellies and jams from them. To get the best taste of dishes without adding salt, you can add herbs, spices allowed by the diet, food acids, sour juices from vegetables and fruits.
In severe renal failure, during which there is a noticeable deterioration in the function of the kidneys, nitrogen accumulation is strongly expressed, and the degree of poisoning of the body is very high, it is recommended to reduce the sodium concentration in the diet to 12 grams daily, increase the amount of fluid to two liters, and consume a maximum of 25 protein. gram.
In case of self-poisoning of the body with chronic renal failure, the blood is rigorously purified from nitrogen deposits and other metabolic products. The diet for renal failure, then, contains a maximum of 60 grams of protein, 70% of which is of animal origin. In addition, the diet includes 100 grams of mostly vegetable fats, 400 grams of carbohydrates, which are found in vegetable fiber. The permissible daily energy value of food is a maximum of 2.8 thousand kcal. At the same time, the drinking regime is rather strongly limited – half a liter of water is allowed with the addition of the amount that the patient has lost over the past day.
Food for the kidney failure diet is prepared without the use of salt, and baked goods must also be unsalted. If the patient does not suffer from edema, then he is allowed to add 3 grams of salt to his food. The amount of potassium in the diet is limited to 2.5 thousand mg, since during hemodialysis, potassium tends to accumulate in the body. If the saturation with potassium still happened, then this trace element is completely excluded from the diet.