Kidney dysfunction is much more dangerous than it seems. Any kidney disease leads to metabolic dysfunction. The water-salt balance in the body is disturbed, puffiness appears.
Chronic renal failure is characterized by a rapid deterioration in the condition of the kidneys. Usually this condition is characteristic of both kidneys. It occurs against the background of a chronic form of pyelonephritis or glomerunofreritis . Often, the deterioration is associated with diabetes or high blood pressure. An excess of protein accumulates in the kidneys, or rather of protein metabolism – nitrogenous waste. They are the reason for the appearance of azotemia.
In the fight against this condition, diet is not the last thing. In fact, it is impossible to 100% get rid of such a problem, but it is quite possible to significantly improve the patient’s quality of life. It is the diet that is an important component of CRF therapy.
Depending on the degree of renal failure, a different degree of restriction of protein foods is selected. The energy efficiency of the diet is achieved through carbohydrates and fats, which contribute to better assimilation of proteins by the body.
The amount of salt and fluid is limited only in the presence of arterial hypertension and edema, regardless of the location.
The basic principles of drawing up a diet in the presence of chronic renal failure include:
- reducing the consumption of protein foods to 40-60 g throughout the day;
- proteins must be present, but mainly of animal origin, which contain a large amount of essential amino acids;
- all drinks that adversely affect kidney function are removed from the diet: alcoholic beverages, strong tea and coffee, hot chocolate, carbonated drinks;
- you will have to completely abandon pickles, spicy dishes and snacks;
- the calorie content of the diet should be at a high level, from 3000 to 3500 units;
- maintaining the required level of calorie intake is achieved due to carbohydrates and fats;
- the amount of salt in the diet is reduced;
- it is necessary to include foods that will maximize the saturation of the body with vitamins; it is recommended to drink juices from vegetables and fruits more often.
One of the most important rules is to reduce the amount of salt in the diet. Should not be in the diet at all fried foods. We’ll have to remove flour products from the menu.
At the initial stage, diet table number 7 according to Pevzner is usually prescribed. The main point is that the amount of protein is reduced, you can consume no more than 0.8 g per 1 kg of body weight.
With renal failure, a fairly wide range of products are allowed, namely:
- protein-free bread, for example, from wheat starch or maize, bran or chlorine products;
- soups with vegetables and cereals are recommended for consumption;
- the use of beetroot, borscht is allowed and you can eat cabbage soup, preferably with fresh herbs and roots, you can cook with vegetables, but without salt;
- a small amount of poultry meat and low-fat varieties of animals are permissible, for example: beef, rabbit, best of all boiled, minced;
- you can eat fish: navaga, pike, pike perch, however, any low-fat varieties;
- vegetables should be the basis of the diet, beets, lettuce, tomatoes, cabbage, carrots, cucumbers, green onions, potatoes will be useful , they can be not only fresh, but also boiled, even fried;
- eggs are allowed, in the form of an omelet and as an additive to other dishes, but not more than 1 piece throughout the day;
- there are practically no restrictions regarding fruits, berries, you can make sweets from them or use them raw, dried;
- you can eat fermented milk and dairy products, but you have to give up those that cause bloating
- cottage cheese is possible, but in small quantities, since it is a source of protein, which should be taken into account when drawing up the menu;
- you can cream, sauces with milk, any gravy from fruits and vegetables;
- you can cook and eat vinaigrette, any vegetable and fruit salads;
- fats are also allowed to be included in the diet, with the exception of refractory fats.
You can drink a decoction of rose hips, coffee and tea, but not strong, best with the addition of milk.
You will have to severely limit the number of fish and meat dishes, protein is not the best product for chronic renal failure. Broths cannot be made on them, as well as on legumes.
Fried, stewed foods, especially from fatty meats and fish, are prohibited. It is unacceptable to use canned food, sausages, other sausages and smoked meats. We’ll have to give up salted and smoked fish, caviar. Not the best products for this type of pathology are chocolate and any other legumes, dishes made from them. You shouldn’t eat cheeses and mushrooms. Garlic and onions, vegetables with a high content of oxalic acid, radishes, radishes, spinach, and sorrel are banned.
You can not eat pickled and salty dishes, sauerkraut. You can not drink strong tea and coffee, mineral water with gas and high sodium content, cocoa.
For acute renal failure
The main essence of acute nutrition is to obtain energy through the intake of fats and carbohydrates into the body. It is best to stick to unsaturated fats such as fish or olive oil.
With normal diuresis indicators, a restriction in the amount of fluid is not required, but the amount of salt will still have to be reduced, ideally removed altogether. Many foods initially contain salt, for example, the same meat and most vegetables. We’ll have to replace salt with spices and herbs.
In some cases, a low protein diet may be required, with concurrent use of amino acids in the form of supplements.
Features of the diet
The main problem faced by people with kidney failure is an increase in potassium levels. In chronic renal failure, it is recommended to reduce the amount of potassium in the diet. This is actually very simple. For example, the same potatoes or other vegetables, after peeling, are placed in a container of water for several hours. Only then is the dish prepared.
If fruits and vegetables are thermally processed before consumption, then the amount of potassium in them is significantly reduced. It is recommended to eat vegetables and fruits after freezing, they are also low in potassium.
Care should be taken to ensure that the products are almost completely free of phosphates.
There are no peculiarities for drawing up a diet in childhood. You can feed your child with boiled cereals, which should form the basis of the diet, you can consume fruits and vegetables, raw and boiled. It is best that they are in season, you can berries and any dishes from them. Sweets are also allowed, but in limited quantities.
The most important thing is to reduce the amount of meat and salt in the diet. But for children, such a diet is usually not a problem.
For pregnant women
During the period of gestation, renal failure is an extremely dangerous condition. There are two main risks associated with this condition:
- a dead baby may be born;
- intrauterine growth retardation may begin.
Therefore, it is very important for women to follow a diet and follow all the doctor’s recommendations.
During pregnancy, women with CRF are put under special control. They will have to check their blood pressure, body weight and tests for the amount of nitrogen and creatine in the blood every 2 weeks. That is, full control over the patient’s condition should be carried out, whether there is a progression of the disease.
Often, women with such a diagnosis give birth much earlier than the due date. Even good results require the patient to be especially attentive to her condition.
For men and women
There are no peculiarities for compiling a diet depending on gender. Men and women are obliged to strictly follow all the recommendations of the attending physician.
Features of the drinking regime
For the normal functioning of the kidneys, a person must drink about 2 liters of water throughout the day. If the kidneys are healthy, then you should not be afraid to drink more of this amount, they will remove all the excess. Much more difficult is the situation when a person does not drink water or drinks, but in insufficient quantities. In fact, puffiness often appears against the background of insufficient intake of fluid in the body, just the body and the kidneys are trying to delay it.
Healthy drinks include mineral water, but only without gas and which is prescribed by a doctor. The use of juices, fruit drinks is allowed, but preferably prepared at home. You can drink tea, but best with milk or lemon. Infusions and teas with medicinal herbs, for example, with chamomile or linden, are very useful. These drinks also help prevent kidney stones.
Menus and diet recipes for kidney failure
Making a menu for kidney failure is not so difficult:
- Breakfast. Bread, without salt and proteins, a little butter and curd casserole, green, weakly certified tea with milk.
- Lunch. Rosehip infusion and syrniki.
- Dinner. Vegetable soup, preferably cream soup, that is, with grated vegetables and millet groats. Some boiled meat and potatoes. Fruit jelly.
- Afternoon snack. Baked fruits, whatever you like.
- Dinner. Millet casserole, vegetable stew and boiled fish, dried fruit compote.
It is recommended to drink a little milk or kefir before going to bed.
To prepare the soup, you need 2 tablespoons of millet and 700 g of chopped vegetables of your choice. Literally 1 tablespoon of butter and a small carrot, 2 potatoes, sour cream and herbs.
The carrots are cut into cubes, fried in oil, then oil is added and stewed in a pan. After that, water, potatoes and millet are added to the vegetables, pre-sautéed, boiled for 20 minutes. Before serving, add herbs and sour cream to the soup.
Remember that with kidney failure, it is important not only to follow the doctor’s recommendations, but also to strictly follow the diet.