Clean and beautiful skin is a guarantee of self-confidence and an indicator of health. The average person has experienced acne at least once in their life. Skin rashes often appear in adolescence – a period of hormonal surge and body restructuring. However, acne can also bother adults, and if it is not treated in time, it can develop into a problem that can only be eliminated with the help of doctors.
Acne, or acne, is a chronic inflammation of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles with a tendency to relapse. This is the most common skin pathology that occurs in both men and women. Rashes most often appear in seborrheic zones, that is, places of the greatest accumulation of sebaceous glands: face, shoulders, chest, upper back. There are four factors, the combined effect of which determines the mechanism for the development of acne:
- Excessive secretion of the sebaceous glands and a decrease in the bactericidal properties of sebum. This phenomenon is usually found in women before menstruation. The skin secret becomes denser, which clogs and blocks the ducts.
- Follicular hyperkeratosis. Constant renewal of the skin occurs due to the desquamation of keratinized, dead plates. The horny layer of the skin thickens, the outflow of sebaceous secretion worsens.
- Activation of propionic bacteria. These microorganisms live in the body of healthy people without causing skin diseases. However, clogging of the sebaceous gland and increased secretion of sebum (sebum) create favorable conditions for the reproduction of conditionally pathogenic microflora.
- Inflammatory process. This is a natural reaction in response to the active reproduction of propionic acne bacteria.
Acne is a polyetiological disease, which is caused by both chronic diseases and external factors. To determine what served as a trigger for the development of pathology, it is important to observe a person’s lifestyle, what cosmetics he uses, what drugs he takes. To get a complete picture, you will need to consult a dermatologist and cosmetologist, who will prescribe a list of necessary tests. Experts give the leading role in the development of acne to hereditary predisposition. For example, pore size and visibility can be passed on from parents to children. It was found that genetic factors are responsible for 50% of all cases. Acne formation is promoted by a large number of exogenous and endogenous factors.
Exogenous (external) causes
The following reasons can cause the development of acne in adults:
- Wrong face care. The use of low-quality cosmetics can cause clogged pores. Inflammation can even be caused by more natural vegetable oils used for moisturizing and sunscreens. It is better to choose a cream with a light texture marked “non-comedogenic”.
- Climatic conditions. High humidity can cause hypersecretion of the sebaceous glands.
- Pimple squeezing. Mechanical trauma leads to an even greater spread of inflammation in the surrounding tissues. In the absence of sterility, infection is inevitable, which aggravates the situation. When the deeper layers of the skin are involved in the inflammatory process, rough scars and scars appear.
- Pollution of the skin and the environment. Dirt on the face clogs the pores, provoking the appearance of a rash.
- Contact with toxic substances. This applies to people working in hazardous industries and forced to constantly contact with chemicals, solvents, varnishes and paints.
- UV exposure. Direct sunlight dries out the skin. To compensate for the condition, excessive secretion of sebum begins. It is important to use sunscreen before going out.
The choice of food also affects the condition of the skin. These include fried, smoked foods, fast foods, dairy products, chocolate. It is important to monitor how the skin reacts to a particular food. With the appearance of inflammation and redness, it is better to exclude such products. The predominance of carbohydrate foods in the diet enhances the secretion of the sebaceous glands. Often acne is diagnosed against the background of gastritis, pancreatitis, dysbacteriosis. Uncontrolled consumption of sugary foods causes a sharp increase in insulin, a hormone that regulates blood glucose levels and affects testosterone. When a person eats a bar of chocolate, the level of sugar in the blood jumps, and with it the indicators of the male hormone. Do not allow frequent insulin surges per day. To do this, you should maintain a “food window” (fasting) between the main methods. This will help reduce the production of male hormones, and with them the amount of inflammation will also decrease. Polynesians, isolated from civilization, practically do not suffer from acne. However, after switching from their usual diet to the diet of the average inhabitant of the planet, they often have skin problems. Do not neglect the daily cleansing of the skin, however, excessive cleanliness can also cause comedones. Frequent use of personal hygiene products leads to a violation of the composition and a decrease in the number of beneficial microflora, which do not allow propionic acne bacteria to multiply actively.
Endogenous (internal) causes
In the first place among the endogenous causes of acne are hormonal changes. Sebum production is controlled by androgens: testosterone, which women have, and others close to it. If their level exceeds the norm, the skin begins to produce more sebum. The thyroid gland is responsible for the amount of hormones produced by the body. With hyperthyroidism (hyperfunction), pustules appear on the skin, body temperature rises and weight decreases. With hypothyroidism (hypofunction of the thyroid gland), acne also appears, the skin becomes dry, and the menstrual cycle is disturbed. Laboratory blood tests (thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, antibodies to thyroglobulin, antibodies to TSH receptors, calcitonin) will help evaluate the functional activity of the thyroid gland. To understand the cause of acne in adults, it is also necessary to take an analysis of the level of sex hormones. An ultrasound examination of the uterus, ovaries and thyroid gland will also be required. In women, acne may flare up during or after pregnancy, before menstruation, or at menopause. The level of hormones also changes after the abolition of oral contraceptives. However, men are more likely to suffer from acne, and in severe forms. To identify causative factors, gastroscopy is prescribed, as well as an analysis for the presence of the Helicobacter pylori bacterium. A detailed biochemical blood test may be required. Chronic stress is another cause of breakouts. The release of the stress hormone cortisol affects the condition of the skin. Negative emotions accumulated over the years break through in the form of blackheads, blockages and irritations on the face. You need to give yourself the opportunity to rest and relax. The first rule that cannot be ignored is a healthy sleep of at least 8 hours a day.
Acne in adults manifests itself in the form of:
- Subcutaneous acne, or closed comedones. These are black or gray rashes that appear as a result of oxidation of the contents of the pores. Acne is made up of inflamed and indurated secretions. They occur as a result of blockage of the mouth of the sebaceous glands with sebum, cosmetics or dust. Localized in the area of the forehead, chin and wings of the nose. Single subcutaneous acne is eliminated by proper skin care.
- Black dots. Unlike closed comedones, they appear on the surface of the skin. They are usually subtle, felt only in the form of some unevenness. They do not cause inflammation or pain.
- Cyst. They are filled with pus and usually leave scars behind. Nodul. These are subcutaneous nodular formations that look like hard tubercles.
- Nodules are accompanied by an inflammatory reaction and cause pain when pressed. May be surrounded by purulent formations. papules. They look like a small red rash. They do not have purulent content.
- Usually papular acne pour out en masse, giving the skin a bumpy appearance. They can be a symptom of some serious diseases, such as chickenpox, measles, lichen planus. Therefore, if the whole face is dotted with pustules, it is better to consult a doctor.
- Pustule. These are rather painful blackheads with white contents. They can heal without a trace, and in some cases leave behind noticeable scars. Pustular acne is not dangerous, but requires treatment due to its infectious nature.
Acne in adults develops according to the same scenario as in adolescents. It all starts with increased production of sebum, leading to blockage of the glands. Then the bacteria begin to actively multiply in the ducts, which leads to the development of an inflammatory reaction and the formation of rashes.
However, later acne is different from teenage acne. Blackheads are usually deeper and localized in the chin and cheeks, and not in the T-zone. Often manifested in the form of more painful and bright inflammations and are worse absorbed. Later acne is more difficult to clean and often leaves behind scars. The formation of complications in the form of spots, bumps and scars occurs due to age-related deterioration in skin regeneration.
Stages of development
Rashes appear alone or in groups, disappear imperceptibly or are accompanied by uncomfortable sensations. Depending on the quantity and nature of acne, experts distinguish 4 main stages of acne development:
- Mild. A single number of small acne, not accompanied by an inflammatory process.
- Average. There are more and more rashes, some of which have signs of inflammation. At this stage, the prognosis with adequate treatment is favorable.
- Heavy. A large number of inflammatory comedones are added, as well as cysts and nodes.
- Extremely heavy. There are more than forty elements of rashes on the face. At this stage, local remedies and dietary adjustments will not correct the situation. Specialist help required.
Methods of treatment
The speed of getting rid of acne is related to how quickly treatment is started. Discipline in the diet and daily hygiene, as well as strict adherence to the recommendations of a dermatologist on the use of drugs and cosmetics will help speed up recovery. You can completely get rid of acne only with an integrated approach. One drug or cosmetic procedure alone will not solve the problem. You need to prepare yourself for a long course of therapy and recovery. There is no means that would remove all the flaws and irregularities in one night.
Already at the second stage of acne, it is advisable to use medicines. The first-line drugs in the treatment of acne include benzoyl peroxide, tretinoin, azeloic acid. Buy accutane online is prescribed for the purpose of providing anti-inflammatory and antibacterial action. The drugs show their effectiveness only under the condition of long-term use – at least three months. If first-line agents fail, topical antibiotics may be prescribed. Oral antibiotics are used for moderate acne. In the treatment of acne in women with hyperandrogenism, hormonal contraceptives may be prescribed.
The fight against problem skin is a laborious and continuous process. To normalize the work of the sebaceous glands, you will need a whole arsenal of scrubs, peels, masks, but sometimes this is not enough. In this case, you can not do without the help of professional cosmetologists. Cosmetology offers a variety of procedures for owners of problem skin. Consider the most popular and effective of them.
Peelings work by exfoliating dead horny cells. This leads to a decrease in the activity of bacteria that cause inflammation. Microorganisms deprived of their usual nutrient medium die. The most common treatment for acne are superficial peels. They contribute to the soft cleansing of the skin, normalize cellular respiration, the work of the sebaceous glands, without causing major injuries. In the case of scars, bumps and spots, median exfoliation is preferred. And in the most severe cases, deep peeling can be applied.
This is essentially the same peeling only with a complex effect. Biodermabrasion is carried out in several stages:
- Superficial preparatory peeling.
- Application of an agent that enhances blood microcirculation.
- “Steaming” the skin with creams.
- Mechanical exfoliation.
- Application of soothing masks and creams.
The procedure makes the pores less noticeable, removes clear points, normalizes the sebaceous glands. It is absolutely not traumatic for the skin and does not require special care.
The laser beam acts pointwise on the cells of the upper layer of the skin and deeper structures, contributing to their renewal. As a result, the natural process of collagen and elastin production is launched, tissue trophism and blood microcirculation are improved, and the relief is evened out. The dermis begins to regenerate damaged layers on its own. In place of spots and scars, new young skin is formed. A feature of laser resurfacing is the impact on individual zones. The thinnest laser beams kind of evaporate the damaged areas. The result is visible immediately after the procedure. Re-grinding can be done after six months. In addition to the fact that irregularities and scars go away, the skin will become smoother and toned.
Mesotherapy has a complex effect on the skin:
- immunostimulating effect;
- saturation of the epidermis with vitamins;
- antibacterial effect;
- antioxidant effect.
Microscopic doses of the drug are injected into the middle layer of the skin. Each acne element is chipped separately. The beautician uses a “cocktail” of drugs. They include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory and healing substances, as well as vitamins and trace elements. The mesococktail is injected directly into the problem area. This allows you to deliver the medicinal substance to the focus of inflammation, stop it and destroy the bacteria.
Ultrasound cleans the surface of the skin. This is a low-impact procedure. The result is noticeable after the first cleaning. Ultrasound removes scars, scars, stretch marks from the face. Ultrasonic waves emit high-frequency vibrations, loosening the connection with dying cells and ensuring their easy removal. They moisturize the skin, accelerate regeneration processes and activate redox processes.
Facial care does not take much time. It is enough just to pay attention to this twice a day in order to avoid problems in the future. Daily care takes place in five stages:
- Cleansing. Twice a day, products containing anti-inflammatory substances and fruit acids should be applied to the skin. For cleansing, you can use milk, mousse or gel.
- Toning. It is used to equalize the acidity of the skin and eliminate microorganisms that can cause acne. Do not use alcohol-based toners, as they will dry out the skin. It is worth carefully approaching the choice of means, as it is not washed off. Hydration and nutrition. It is better to give preference to creams from professional brands or a pharmacy line.
- Peeling. Acid-based products are best for exfoliating acne-prone skin. With pustular rashes, peelings with particles can cause the appearance of new elements.
- Masks. It is enough to do several times a week. The tool is selected depending on the type of skin and its needs. It is better to apply the mask with a brush, which must be disinfected after each use.
Quality daily care is extremely important for acne. It helps remove excess sebum, keeps pores clean, and also speeds up the healing of open acne. It is better to entrust the selection of a method of treatment and means for care to a specialist. So the process of getting rid of acne will be safe and effective.
Advanced stages of acne rarely pass without a trace. The severity of the consequences depends on the degree of damage to the dermis. When injured at the level of the epidermis, hyperpigmentation appears. And damage to the dermal layers of the tissue is expressed in the form of cicatricial changes and tuberosity. After acne, the skin can lose its beautiful and healthy appearance due to imperfections that have appeared:
- enlarged pores;
- red, blue and even purple traces;
- scars and irregularities;
- sebaceous gland cysts; whiteheads;
- brown spots;
- post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation;
- dry sensitive skin;
If acne is injured, squeezed out or does not heal well, spots remain on the skin and scars form – this is post-acne. The main cause of this complication is chronic inflammation. With untimely treatment, deep tissues are involved in the process. Their damage increases the risk of complications. Therefore, even mild forms of acne, with single rashes, cannot be ignored. The severity of post-acne directly depends on the severity of the course of acne. Therefore, therapy is aimed not only at eliminating the consequences themselves, but also at preventing the appearance of new elements on the skin. If acne appears again and again, the inflammatory process will generate new scars. Therefore, work with a dermatologist-cosmetologist is required. The gold standard for acne treatment is the use of retinoids. This group of drugs has a wide range of cosmetic effects, lightening age spots, smoothing the skin texture and reducing the depth of scars. Deeper and more noticeable traces will not be able to be removed on their own. For this, cosmetic procedures are carried out, for example, chemical peels, mesotherapy, laser resurfacing. Acne in adults is caused by excess sebum production. Internal problems, such as hormonal or endocrine disorders, can cause acne. A rash can appear when using low-quality cosmetics, eating sweet and starchy foods, and also after prolonged stress. Eliminate acne will help daily facial skin care and cosmetic procedures.
Yuri Ivanovich Shestakov
Higher education. Graduated from the Smolensk State Medical Academy (Smolensk), Faculty of Medicine, specialization “General Practitioner”. Clinical residency in the specialty “Dermatovenereology”. Residency in dermatovenereology at the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia. Advanced training in the specialty “Dermatocosmetology” at the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia. Member of the National Society of Mesotherapists.